• 3761 B.C. Beginning of the Jewish calendar, which was adopted by the Jewish physician and philosopher Moshe ben Maimon (Greek: Maimonides) from Cordoba (12th century), following the story of creation in the Bible.
  • Before 1000 BC. The Israelites migrate to Egypt, are enslaved and flee Egypt. Moses proclaims God’s commandments on Mount Sinai.
  • 6th century BC. Babylonian captivity in Mesopotamia (today Iraq).
  • ca. 7 to 4 B.C. Birth of Jesus of Nazareth.
  • 70 AD. Destruction of Jerusalem by Roman troops under Titus, scattering of the Jewish people in all regions of the world at that time: beginning of the Diaspora with persecutions by the respective majority society.
  • ca. 4th c. – 15th c. Jews and Jewish life settle in Europe.
  • 1095 The first crusade to reconquer Jerusalem from the Muslims triggers pogroms against Jews in Europe.
    pogroms against Jews on the Rhine. Later, anti-Jewish invective sculptures are placed on Christian places of worship.
  • 1348 The plague in Europe is accompanied by pogroms against Jews.
  • 1492 As a result of the Spanish Inquisition, Jews are expelled from Spain and Portugal and settle in the Ottoman Empire and Palestine.
  • 16th/17th c. Reformation and Wars of Religion: Jews become the target of insults, expulsion and persecution.
  • 17th/18th c. Age of Enlightenment: Jews and Jewish life, with their communities and synagogues, become part of society as a whole and contribute significantly to cultural and scientific development in Germany and Europe through art, music, literature, philosophy and science.
  • 19th century. Emergence of a new anti-Semitism in the German Empire, France and England through anti-Jewish writings.
  • August 29, 1897 Founding of the Zionist movement with the aim of establishing a Jewish state by Theodor Herzl and other initiators, including the religious philosopher Martin Buber, who later lived in Heppenheim (1916 to 1938). First immigrations and settlements of kibbutzim in Palestine.
  • From 1918 Increased anti-Semitic actions after World War I, intensified in the Weimar Republic by increasing National Socialist agitation.
  • January 30, 1933 By the National Socialists, terrorist expulsion of Jews from professions, deprivation of livelihoods through robbery, destruction and fiscal harassment.