An important religious and social symbol of Judaism is the mezuzah (Hebrew for doorpost) with blessings for the house and its inhabitants. Texts from the Torah are attached to doorposts in small capsules, touched with the fingers by devout residents and visitors, and the fingers are then brought to the mouth as a kiss (the so-called mezuzah kiss).

But also the Shabbat with its strict holiday rest, the cemetery culture and the wearing of head coverings (headscarf or kippa) in the synagogue and in public belong to religious symbolic acts.

In Jewish life, religious festivals (with associated food, fruit and baked goods) such as the New Year in September, the Feast of Tabernacles in October or the Feast of Atonement Yom Kippur have high symbolic value. Matzos, as unleavened flatbread, also play an important role in the Jewish diet. This must be kosher according to more or less strict regulations (marking by kosher stamp).

With all these symbols and rites, religious regulations and customs have developed into traditions over the centuries.

Fig. 5 | 6: The bronze menorah stands in front of the Knesset in Jerusalem and was created by Benno Elkan, who lived and worked artistically as a sculptor in Alsbach an der Bergstraße from 1911 to 1919. (Source: Benno Elkan, Tamar Hayardeni, via Wikipedia Commons | Seven-branched candelabrum in front of the Knesset in Jerusalem, 29 individual pieces, bronze, 4.75m x 3.65m, 1949-1956, Wk-Nr. 320, Proesi, via Wikimedia Commons)
Fig. 7: Mezuzah. (Source: zeevveez from Jerusalem, Israel, via Wikimedia Commons)
Fig. 8: The Jewish cemetery in Alsbach-Hähnlein is one of the oldest and largest in southern Hesse with 2128 gravestones preserved (1615-1948). (Source: The Jewish cemetery in Alsbach-Hähnlein, Germany, Thomas Pusch, via Wikimedia Commons)
Fig. 9: Kippa (Source: Image from Freepik)
Fig. 10: Kippa (Source: Image from Pixabay)
Fig. 11: Kosher stamp (source: stamp potwierdzający koszerność, Auschwitz Jewish Center, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons).
Fig. 12: Matzo (source: Shmura Matzo, Yoninah, via Wikimedia Commons).